Meat Eating and Comparative Anatomy of Animals
– by Milton R. Mills, M.D



This table shows anatomical comparison between herbivores, omnivores, and carnivores. Human are self proclaimed omnivores. However in anatomical comparison human are herbivores rather then omnivores. Also there are a lot of anatomical similarities between omnivores and carnivores that it seems carnivores can be omnivores and vice versa in their diet, but herbivores can only be herbivores.



Facial Muscles

Carnivore

Reduced to allow wide mouth gape

Herbivore

Well developed

Omnivore

Reduced

Human

Well developed

 

 

Jaw Type

Carnivore

Angle not expanded

Herbivore

Expanded angle

Omnivore

Angle not expanded

Human

Expanded angle

 

 

Jaw Joint Location

Carnivore

On same plane as molar teeth

Herbivore

Above the plane of the molars

Omnivore

On same plane as molar teeth

Human

Above the plane of the molars

 

 

Jaw Motion

Carnivore

Shearing; minimal side to side motion

Herbivore

No shear; good side to side, front to back

Omnivore

Shearing; minimal side to side

Human

No shear; good side to side, front to back

 

 

Major Jaw Muscles

Carnivore

Temporalis

Herbivore

Masseter and pterygoids

Omnivore

Temporalis

Human

Masseter and pterygoids

 

 

Mouth Opening vs. Head Size

Carnivore

Large

Herbivore

Small

Omnivore

Large

Human

Small

 

 

Teeth (Incisors)

Carnivore

Short and pointed

Herbivore

Broad, flattened and spade shaped

Omnivore

Short and pointed

Human

Broad, flattened and spade shaped

 

 

Teeth (Canines)

Carnivore

Long, sharp and curved

Herbivore

Dull and short or long (for defense), or none

Omnivore

Long, sharp and curved

Human

Short and blunted

 

 

Teeth (Molars)

Carnivore

Sharp, jagged and blade shaped

Herbivore

Flattened with cusps vs complex surface

Omnivore

Sharp blades and/or flattened

Human

Flattened with nodular cusps

 

 

Chewing

Carnivore

None; swallows food whole

Herbivore

Extensive chewing necessary

Omnivore

Swallows food whole and/or simple crushing

Human

Extensive chewing necessary

 

 

Saliva

Carnivore

No digestive enzymes

Herbivore

Carbohydrate digesting enzymes

Omnivore

No digestive enzymes

Human

Carbohydrate digesting enzymes

 

 

Stomach Type

Carnivore

Simple

Herbivore

Simple or multiple chambers

Omnivore

Simple

Human

Simple

 

 

Stomach Acidity

Carnivore

Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach

Herbivore

pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach

Omnivore

Less than or equal to pH 1 with food in stomach

Human

pH 4 to 5 with food in stomach

 

 

Stomach Capacity

Carnivore

60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract

Herbivore

Less than 30% of total volume of digestive tract

Omnivore

60% to 70% of total volume of digestive tract

Human

21% to 27% of total volume of digestive tract

 

 

Length of Small Intestine

Carnivore

3 to 6 times body length

Herbivore

10 to more than 12 times body length

Omnivore

4 to 6 times body length

Human

10 to 11 times body length

 

 

Colon

Carnivore

Simple, short and smooth

Herbivore

Long, complex; may be sacculated

Omnivore

Simple, short and smooth

Human

Long, sacculated

 

 

Liver

Carnivore

Can detoxify toxic vitamin A derived from animal meat

Herbivore

Cannot detoxify toxic vitamin A derived from animal meat

Omnivore

Can detoxify toxic vitamin A derived from animal meat

Human

Cannot detoxify toxic vitamin A derived from animal meat

 

 

Kidney

Carnivore

Extremely concentrated urine

Herbivore

Moderately concentrated urine

Omnivore

Extremely concentrated urine

Human

Moderately concentrated urine

 

 

Nails

Carnivore

Sharp claws

Herbivore

Flattened nails or blunt hooves

Omnivore

Sharp claws

Human

Flattened nails



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